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Anaesthesia for Veterinary Nurses by Liz Welsh

By Liz Welsh

Normal veterinary collections from libraries to training vet references will locate Liz Welsh does a great enhancing activity in ANAESTHESIA FOR VETERINARY NURSES, a survey written in particular for veterinary nurses through veterinary nurses and surgeons. insurance of the diversity of physiological and pharmacological points of anesthesia were totally up-to-date and replicate the most recent alterations to veterinary nursing.

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Additional info for Anaesthesia for Veterinary Nurses

Example text

In association with the natural elastic recoil of the air sacs, air is thus expelled, allowing expiration to occur. On inspiration fresh air is inhaled. The inspired air and the air already in the dead spaces may largely bypass the lung structure and go straight to the most caudal air sacs in the abdomen. Air already in the airways is displaced cranially through the gaseous exchange portion of the lung structure and on into the cranial air sacs in the thorax and cervical areas. During the following expiration, air in the caudal air sacs (abdominal and caudal thoracic) is passed again through the portions of the lung responsible for gaseous exchange.

Blood volume will also affect blood pressure. This will influence the volume of venous blood that returns to the heart, diastolic volume, stroke volume and therefore cardiac output. In addition to neural mechanisms controlling blood pressure, a number of chemical mediators influence blood vessel diameter and hence the resistance to flow. For example, vasoactive substances such as kinins present in the bloodstream can cause venodilation, lowering blood pressure; drugs such as the phenothiazines (for example, acepromazine) also cause vasodilation.

Stimulation of the respiratory centre results in contraction of the muscular portion of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles so that respiratory rate (tachypnoea) and depth (hyperpnoea) are increased. Although carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen ion concentration are monitored, carbon dioxide is the main controlling factor because the respiratory centre in mammals works to keep PCO2 levels constant. This is illustrated in the following example. Physiology Relevant to Anaesthesia 21 Inhaled air is low in oxygen Oxygen in bloodstream decreases (PO2 is decreased) Respiratory centre stimulates respiration Increased respiratory rate and depth Increased amount of O2 breathed in.

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