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An Introduction to Human Blood Groups by M.D. Fulton Roberts

By M.D. Fulton Roberts

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It is clear from the blood groups of the two elder children that each of the parents must possess an 0 THE ABO SYSTEM 53 gene. The father, therefore, is of the genotype BO and the mother Α 2 0 . I n the second family the father and the girl twin are of the phenotype Av and without the evidence provided by the genotypes of the mother and the boy twin their genotypes could not have been ascertained. The boy has received B from his mother and A 2 has come from his father, whose genotype must be A ^ g .

These rare samples are unsatisfactory for transfusion and have been called " dangerous universal donor " blood, a term t h a t is now not very useful since the term " universal donor " has rightly been discarded. The initials " dud " might be retained, however. I t might be argued t h a t in emergency when there may be no time or facilities for proper blood grouping of the patient, the administration of Group 0 dd blood might be THE ABO SYSTEM 63 justified. This argument is not strong. In the first place facilities for accurate blood grouping should always be available, day or night, wherever blood for transfusion is itself available.

Peptic ulcération of all kinds is significantly commoner in persons of Group O, both in many parts of Europe and in widely-scattered parts of the world. The association is even more pronounced with duodenal ulcer 67 68 HUMAN BLOOD GROUPS t h a n with gastric ulcer. I t is also clear t h a t ulcération is much commoner in non-secretors of the ABO blood group substances ; it is probably more common in those whose gastric HC1 secretion is promoted by histamine. There are no means at present of interpreting these results, but one cannot help wondering if the secretion into the stomach of the A or B substance may not afford some protection against peptic ulcération—particularly of the duodenum.

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