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Afghanistan: A Military History From Alexander The Great To by Stephen Tanner

By Stephen Tanner

Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, the realm was once riveted as American army strength contested the mythical warrior tradition of Afghanistan. by way of spring 2002, the USA started to draw down its forces, its undertaking comprehensive: The Afghan Taliban regime has been overthrown and the terrorists it harbored have been at the run. used to be America's effortless victory facts of its army superiority, or have been the Afghans basically eyeing the beginners as they've got watched overseas armies in centuries earlier, understanding time is on their side?For over 2,500 years, the forbidding territory of Afghanistan has served as an important crossroads--not only for armies yet for clashes among civilizations--the Greeks, Arabs, Mongols, and Tartars, and in additional fresh occasions, Britain and Russia. Now the US needs to face a brand new enemy in this land--a land that for hundreds of years has turn into a graveyard of empires past.This first-ever whole army heritage of Afghanistan illuminates the huge old context into which American forces were drawn--a cautionary story, might be, concerning the hazards which can lie forward.

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Extra info for Afghanistan: A Military History From Alexander The Great To The Fall Of The Taliban

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The Macedonians returned across the Jaxartes. Then news of a disaster was received. The force Alexander had dispatched to Maracanda had indeed relieved Spitamenes's siege of that city's citadel. After pursuing the rebels into the countryside, however, the relief force had fallen into a trap. It was probably a typical steppe warrior maneuver of feigned retreat followed by a vicious ambush once the invading party had worn itself out. At one point the Greeks formed a square near the banks of the Zaravshan River, but 46 AFGHANISTAN then the cavalry decided to bolt across the river for greater safety.

Having secured his own logistics, the delay may have been meant to weaken the larger Persian force through hunger and its consequent demoralization. Otherwise, his problem was that he could not hope to match the width of Persian front in a wide field, and, given the enemy's superior cavalry, knew he would be outflanked from the beginning. His solution was to organize his army into a rough rectangle. The heavy Macedonian infantry was aligned across the front, his own Companion Cavalry on the right, and Parmenio's Thessalian horsemen on the left.

In crafting his invasion, the young king was careful to the point of meticulous. , Alexander rested and reassembled his army southeast of the Caspian Sea. Athletic games were held, and at one point the queen of the Amazons came in from the north, hoping to bear a child by the great conqueror. For centuries historians doubted the truth of this tale, but modern archaeologists have discovered gravesites with ample evidence of a female warrior culture in the lower Eurasian steppes. On balance, the ancient accounts of Amazon warriors must be accepted, though the formidable Sarmatians—cousins of the Scythians—of whom they seemed to be a part, may have used them primarily for diplomacy.

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