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Advances in Educational and Psychological Testing: Theory by Ronald K. Hambleton, Jac. N. Zaal

By Ronald K. Hambleton, Jac. N. Zaal

Over the final two decades there were a great number of technical advances and alterations within the box of academic and mental trying out. in accordance with Anne Anastasi, the last decade of the 1980's has been a interval of bizarre advances in ,psychological trying out. Technological development, theoretical sophistication, and extending professional­ fessional accountability are all obvious within the fast-moving occasions during this box (A. Anastasi, mental trying out, 6th variation. big apple: Macmillan, 1988). at the psychometric entrance, advances in issues similar to merchandise reaction concept, criterion-referenced dimension, generalizability theory,· analy­ sis of covariance constructions, and validity generalization are reshaping the ways in which skill and fulfillment exams are built and evaluated, and that try out ratings are interpreted. yet \Jsychometric advances, as enormous and significant as they've been, are just a fragment of the foremost adjustments within the box of trying out. at the present time, for instance, the pc is extensively chang­ ing the ways that exams are developed, administered, and scored. desktops are getting used to manage assessments "adaptively." that's, the series of questions an examinee is run depends on his or her functionality on previous administered goods within the try. checks are "adapted" to the power degrees of the examinees who're being assessed. One result's shorter exams with very little loss in dimension precision. pcs also are getting used to shop or financial institution try goods. Later, goods of curiosity will be chosen, and the pc is used to print copies of the test.

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It is well documented, too, that item writing training will usually improve test quality (see, for example, Wieberg, Neeb, & Schott, 1984). The most widely used criterion-referenced test item format over the years has been the multiple-choice question. , Haladyna & Downing, 1989a, 1989b; Haladyna & Shindoll, 1989; Raid & Haladyna, 1982). Carlson (1985) and Gulliksen (1986), however, have offered useful examples and insights into the use of alternative item formats that, although not necessarily new, receive infrequent use.

Judges are asked to identify distractors in multiplechoice test items that they feel the minimally competent student should be able to eliminate as incorrect. The minimum passing level for that item then becomes the reciprocal of the number of remaining alternatives. It is the "chance score" on the test item for the minimally competent student. The judges proceed with each test item in a similar fashion, and, on completion of the judging process, each judge sums the minimum passing levels across the test items to obtain a standard.

M. (1978). A proposal for setting a standard on the North Carolina High School Competency Test. Paper presented at the Spring meeting of the North Carolina Association for Research in Education, Chapel Hill. - - - - . (1989). Certification of student competence. In R. L. ), Educational measurement, 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan, pp. 485-514. Kane, M. T. (1982). The validity of licensure examinations. American Psychologist 37:911-918. , & Guthrie, J. T. (1980). Construct validity of functional reading tests.

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