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A note-book of European history, 1400-1920 by Samuel Hugh McGrady

By Samuel Hugh McGrady

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2) INCREASING SECULARIZATION OF THE CHURCH (a) The Lives of the Popes, in theory the representatives of God on earth, but in reality secular princes. g. John XXII against the Visconti; Julius II against Venice. g. conduct of Alexander VI and his son, Cesare Borgia. " The Venetian Ambassador described Rome as the sewer of the world (1499), and D • AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE Machiavelli thought that through its example all religion had perished in Italy. (b) The Abuses of the Ecclesiastical Courts. "The rule of the Church was nothing for nothing," and the Curia sold justice to the highest bidder.

He entered a monastery and studied St. Augustine (justification by faith, not through" good works "), and became professor at Wittenberg University (1508), established by Frederick the Wise of Saxony. " In 1517 he attacked the sale of Indulgences by Tetzel, and posted his ninety-five theses on the door of the church at Wittenberg. He burnt the Papal Bull of Leo X (1520), wrote Address to the German Nobility and the-Babylonian Captivity of the Church (1520), and attacked the Papal Supremacy and the sacramental system.

E) Exemption from taxation of Ecclesiastical Property, though one-third of the wealth of Europe was in the hands of the Church. (2) INCREASING SECULARIZATION OF THE CHURCH (a) The Lives of the Popes, in theory the representatives of God on earth, but in reality secular princes. g. John XXII against the Visconti; Julius II against Venice. g. conduct of Alexander VI and his son, Cesare Borgia. " The Venetian Ambassador described Rome as the sewer of the world (1499), and D • AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE Machiavelli thought that through its example all religion had perished in Italy.

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